First of all, you have to know that Catalan is spoken by about 10 million people, including 7.5 million in Spain. This represents about 16% of the total population of Spain.
This language is mainly spoken in Andorra, Catalonia, Balearic Islands and Valencia.
The first point of distinction is obviously the language : since the return of democracy and the status of Autonomy, Catalan is being taught again at school. For fear of the loss of their identity, the Catalan authorities framed the places, places where it could be used: In 2003, the first fines were held for lack of labelling in Catalan in the shops. bviously the language.
Another point of difference: the economy. Indeed for a long time Madrid was only an administrative center contrary to Catalonia, which was it an economical center.
To take an example that really marked me. I sold wine with a co-worker on the first weekend of the World Cup. And one my great surprise, when we were saying to the "Spanish people" (Catalan in reality) "Nice match yesterday against Portugal.. ", 70% of them told us not to follow Spain because of their willingness to become independent of this country. And to mark their territory, Catalonia. Reactions were " I don't care, I'm no support this team ".